Why LiFePO4 Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Packs

Why LiFePO4 Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Packs

LiFePO4 Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries provide users with a safe, powerful, long lasting power solution. The LiFePO4 cell has become one of the primary cell choices for top manufacturers of demanding equipment in today’s portable product marketplace.
Many applications using sealed lead acid (SLA) are upgrading their battery power with a drop in replacement” LiFePO4 battery.

LiFePO4 Lithium Iron Phosphate battery packs are extremely powerful, capable of providing high discharge rates even at elevated temperatures. Safety is improved over other lithium ion chemistries due to its thermal and chemical stability.

LiFePO4 cells are long lasting and boast a 3+ year shelf life due to its slower decline of energy density. Battery packs are capable of providing 2000+ cycles, which could outlast the product it is powering!

In addition to numerous features Li-Iron Phosphate battery packs provide, the chemistry is also very ‘green’. Lifepo4 battery Cells utilize no harmful heavy metals and can be recycled. The high cycle count promotes longer usage in devices, as opposed to cells made from other chemistries that cease functioning at a much lower count.

Lifepo4 lithium iron phosphate cells characteristic:

Safety of LiFePO4 Battery

LiFePO4 Battery has much better performance on safety than other lithium iron battery.
One important advantage over other lithium-ion chemistries is thermal and chemical stability, which improves battery safety. LiFePO4 is an intrinsically safer cathode material than LiCoO2 and manganese spinel. The Fe–P–O bond is stronger than the Co–O bond, so that when abused, (short-circuited, overheated, etc.) the oxygen atoms are much harder to remove. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration.
As lithium migrates out of the cathode in a LiCoO2 cell, the CoO2 undergoes non-linear expansion that affects the structural integrity of the cell. The fully lithiated and unlithiated states of LiFePO4 are structurally similar which means that LiFePO4 cells are more structurally stable than LiCoO2 cells.
No lithium remains in the cathode of a fully charged LiFePO4 cell—in a LiCoO2 cell, approximately 50% remains in the cathode. LiFePO4 is highly resilient during oxygen loss, which typically results in an exothermic reaction in other lithium cells.
As a result, lithium iron phosphate cells are much harder to ignite in the event of mishandling (especially during charge) although any fully charged battery can only dissipate overcharge energy as heat. Therefore, failure of the battery through misuse is still possible. It is commonly accepted that LiFePO4 battery does not decompose at high temperatures. The difference between LFP and the LiPo battery cells commonly used in the aeromodelling hobby is particularly notable.

Q: What is special about lithium ion batteries?

A: With high energy density, it reached 460-600Wh/kg, which is about 6-7 times that of lead-acid batteries. Long service life, the service life can reach more than 6 years. Light weight, the weight is about 1/5-6 of the lead-acid product under the same volume.

Q: What is a lithium battery used for?

A: Using lithium battery for power supply and storage. Like a backup power supply or a UPS. Reliable power for electric and recreational vehicles, golf cart, reliable and lightweight marine, solar energy storage, surveillance or alarm systems in remote locations.

Q: What is the difference between a lithium ion battery and a LiFePo4 battery?

A: LiFePo4 battery is one type of lithium ion battery. There are some other lithium ion batteries like NCM lithium batteries has nominal voltage of 3.7v. While LiFePo4 is rated 3.2v nominal.

Q: Are your batteries safe?

A: Our batteries are safe. All Coremax batteries use the safest and most stable components, including a LiFePO4 cathode and an integrated Battery Management System (BMS). The BMS protects the cells against excessively high or low voltages, high currents, short circuits, and excessive heat or cold. .These are the most common causes of battery failures, and we have taken every precaution to mitigate these risks in all of our batteries.

Q: What are the advantages of lithium batteries?

A: Compared to lead-acid batteries and other lithium batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries offer significant advantages, including better discharge and charge efficiency, longer cycle life, and the ability to deep cycle while now food. LifePO4 batteries often have a higher price, but a much better cost over the life of the product. No maintenance and a very long lifespan make it a worthwhile investment and a smart long-term solution.

Q: How do I choose the right deep cycle lithium battery for my application?

In most standard 12, 24, or 48 volt systems, the best lithium battery choice is LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate). The voltage of this type of battery is very similar to that of an AGM and will work great with readily available system components for your RV, boat, or off-grid ESS system.

Long life cycles

Lithium batteries stand apart from other battery chemistries due to their high energy density and low cost per cycle. However, “lithium battery” is an ambiguous term. There are about six common chemistries of lithium batteries, all with their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For renewable energy applications, the predominant chemistry is Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4). This chemistry has excellent safety, with great thermal stability, high current ratings, long cycle life, and tolerance to abuse.

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) is an extremely stable lithium chemistry when compared to almost all other lithium chemistries. The battery is assembled with a naturally safe cathode material (iron phosphate). Compared to other lithium chemistries iron phosphate promotes a strong molecular bond, which withstands extreme charging conditions, prolongs cycle life, and maintains chemical integrity over many cycles. This is what gives these batteries their great thermal stability, long cycle life, and tolerance to abuse. LiFePO4 batteries are not prone to overheating, nor are they disposed to ‘thermal runaway’ and therefore do not over-heat or ignite when subjected to rigorous mishandling or harsh environmental conditions.

Saftey Chemictries no fire

Unlike flooded lead acid and other battery chemistries, Lithium batteries do not vent dangerous gases such as hydrogen and oxygen. There’s also no danger of exposure to caustic electrolytes such as sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide. In most cases, these batteries can be stored in confined areas without the risk of explosion and a properly designed system should not require active cooling or venting.

Easy combination system

Lithium batteries are an assembly composed of many cells, like lead-acid batteries and many other battery types. Lead acid batteries have a nominal voltage of 2V/cell, whereas lithium battery cells have a nominal voltage of 3.2V. Therefore, to achieve a 12V battery you’ll typically have four cells connected in a series. This will make the nominal voltage of a LiFePO4 12.8V. Eight cells connected in a series make a 24V battery with a nominal voltage of 25.6V and sixteen cells connected in a series make a 48V battery with a nominal voltage of 51.2V. These voltages work very well with your typical 12V, 24V, and 48V inverters.

Lithium batteries are often used to directly replace the lead-acid batteries because they have very similar charging voltages. A four cell LiFePO4 Battery (12.8V), will typically have a max charge voltage between 14.4-14.6V (depending on manufacturers recommendations). What’s unique to a lithium battery is that they do not need an absorption charge or to be held in a constant voltage state for significant periods of time. Typically, when the battery reaches the max charge voltage it no longer needs to be charged. The discharge characteristics of LiFePO4 batteries is also unique. During discharge, lithium batteries will maintain a much higher voltage than lead-acid batteries typically would under load. It’s not uncommon for a lithium battery to only drop a few tenths of a volt from a full charge to 75% discharged. This can make It difficult to tell how much capacity has been used without battery monitoring equipment.

More Efficiency

A significant advantage of lithium over lead-acid batteries is that they do not suffer from deficit cycling. Essentially, this is when the batteries cannot be fully charged before being discharged again the next day. This is a very big problem with lead-acid batteries and can promote significant plate degradation if repeatedly cycled in this manner. LiFePO4 batteries do not need to be fully charged regularly. In fact, it’s possible to slightly improve overall life expectancy with a slight partial charge instead of a full charge.

Efficiency is a very important factor when designing solar electric systems. The round-trip efficiency (from full to dead and back to full) of the average lead acid battery is about 80%. Other chemistries can be even worse. The round-trip energy efficiency of a Lithium Iron Phosphate battery is upwards of 95-98%. This alone is a significant improvement for systems starved of solar power during winter, the fuel savings from generator charging can be tremendous. The absorption charge stage of lead-acid batteries is particularly inefficient, resulting in efficiencies of 50% or even less. Considering lithium batteries do not absorption charge, the charge time from completely discharged to completely full can be as little as two hours. It’s also important to note that a lithium battery can undergo a nearly complete discharge as rated without significant adverse effects. It is, however, important to make sure the individual cells do not over discharge. This is the job of the integrated Battery Management System (BMS).

Safety and reliability

The safety and reliability of lithium batteries is a big concern, thus all assemblies should have an integrated Battery Management System (BMS). The BMS is a system that monitors, evaluates, balances, and protects cells from operating outside the “Safe Operating Area”. The BMS is an essential safety component of a lithium battery system, monitoring and protecting the cells within the battery against over current, under/over voltage, under/over temperature and more. A LiFePO4 cell will be permanently damaged if the voltage of the cell ever falls to less than 2.5V, it will also be permanently damaged if the voltage of the cell increases to more than 4.2V. The BMS monitors each cell and will prevent damage to the cells in the case of under/over voltage.

Self balance

Another essential responsibility of the BMS is to balance the pack during charging, guaranteeing all cells get a full charge without overcharging. The cells of a LiFePO4 battery will not automatically balance at the end of the charge cycle. There are slight variations in the impedance through the cells and thus no cell is 100% identical. Therefore, when cycled, some cells will be fully charged or discharged earlier than others. The variance between cells will increase significantly over time if the cells are not balanced.

In lead-acid batteries, current will continue to flow even when one or more of the cells are fully charged. This is a result the electrolysis taking place within the battery, the water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen. This current helps to fully charge other cells, thus naturally balancing the charge on all cells. However, a fully charged lithium cell will have a very high resistance and very little current will flow. The lagging cells will therefore not be fully charged. During balancing the BMS will apply a small load to the fully charged cells, preventing it from overcharging and allowing the other cells to catch up.

Lithium batteries offer many benefits over other battery chemistries. They are a safe and reliable battery solution, with no fear of thermal runaway and/or catastrophic meltdown, which is a significant possibility from other lithium battery types. These batteries offer extremely long cycle life, with some manufacturers even warranting batteries for up to 10,000 cycles. With high discharge and recharge rates upwards of C/2 continuous and a round-trip efficiency of up to 98%, it’s no wonder these batteries are gaining traction within the industry. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) is a perfect energy storage solution.

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